The Muslim Era began with the Great Event of the Hijrah from Mecca to Medina or the Emigration of Prophet Muhammad and his Companions from Mecca to Medina. The adoption of this Event as the beginning of the Muslim Era took place in the Caliphate of ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, the second Caliph after Muhammad.
The Muslim calendar is Lunar, and its months are determined by the various positions of the moon. In every year there are twelve months, and each month is either thirty or twenty-nine days depending on the position of the moon. These months are : Muharram, Safar, Rabee Al-Awwal, Rabee Al-Thani, Jumada Al-Oola, Jumada Al-Thaniyah, Rajab, Shaban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Thul-Qa’dah, and Thul-Hijjah.
Every week has one special day to remember and observe. This is Friday, and its significance stems from the noon congregational prayers which must be observed by every Muslim who can attend. There are other significant occasions which should be remembered with a special observance.
1. Ramadan, the Month of Fasting, in which the Qur’an was revealed.
2. The Night of Power of Qadr which may be observed on the odd nights in the last ten days of Ramadan.
3. ‘Eed-l-Fitr (Feast of breaking the Fast of Ramadan) which falls on the First Day of Shawwal.
4. ‘Eed-l-Adha (Feast of sacrifice) which falls on the tenth day of Thul-Hijjah.
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